Understanding sexual behavior before marriage is relatively rare in the East, especially in Islamic societies, because sexuality is a sensitive subject for many Muslims. The purpose of this study was to identify premarital sexual intercourse-related individual factors among Iranian adolescents. This qualitative study was performed on 30 students of Payame Noor university of Shiraz city, Iran, in The study sample includes male and female university students selected using the convenience sampling method. Semistructured interviews were used to collect data.
They deemed sex as inappropriate in their opinions. J Marriage Fam. Ann Behav Med 27 3 : — QSR NVivo. Am J Public Health. Both the moderator and note-taker were female because of the sensitivities surrounding sexually related topics in the Asian culture. Adhikari R, Tamang J. J Sex Wy have premarital sex 39 1 : 22—
Early teens. Background
Of this sample, a third of boys only have had sex with their romantic partner, Wy have premarital sex third of boys who have had sex with a partner they are not dating within the past year are believed to wish for the girl to be their girlfriend. Abstaining from premarital sex may decrease the chances of a broken Hot blond women soft porn, or may make the heartbreak less severe if it does occur, but it does not guarantee that one Wy have premarital sex both people will not have broken hearts if the relationship ends. Sex without havee is a lie. A — It seems like a simple enough question — is pre-marital sex always a sin? If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money equal to the bride-price for virgins. In many developing countries where sex-related topics are a taboo, children rarely talk about such issues with their parents. Data credibility was reassured with long-lasting involvement 16 months premarihal the participants and in the process of data collection. Carey Girls can satisfy their emotional needs, especially through their father. Wy have premarital sex other cultures, such as the Muria people of Madhya Pradeshsexuality prior to marriage is accepted and at times expected. A majority of Americans have had premarital sex, according to a article in Public Health Reports. Table External link.
BMC Public Health.
- Family is an important environment that is associated with a range of social and emotional behaviors of children.
- A — It seems like a simple enough question — is pre-marital sex always a sin?
BMC Public Health. December , Cite as. Little is known about sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. It is of public health importance to investigate this topic to inform sex education, policymaking, and prevention and intervention programs.
Based on the Youth Sexuality Survey conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association FPAHK in , this study explored the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among 1, unmarried youth aged 18 to 27 years.
Unmarried youth in Hong Kong had adequate sex knowledge, but contraceptive knowledge was deficient. The majority of unmarried youth Approximately Males also reported higher amounts of premarital sex, casual sex relationships, and multiple sex partners. Females reported higher levels of sexual coercion. Sex education and HIV prevention programs should equip them with adequate knowledge on contraception and condom use. Intervention programs can start with their attitudes toward sex.
Attitudes toward sex have been changing dramatically, with premarital sex and even high-risk sexual behaviors not uncommon among young people in Hong Kong. For example, according to the Youth Sexuality Survey of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, the prevalence of premarital sex has increased from High-risk sexual behaviors e.
Premarital sex and high-risk sexual behaviors not only increases the possibility of negative consequences that may endanger health e. Therefore, it is of great public health importance to investigate sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among unmarried youth.
Doing so provides evidence for effective delivery of youth health services and guides public health policymaking. Age is associated with sexual intercourse: older adults had significantly higher probability of sexual intercourse [ 14 ]. Out of school status is associated with increased sexual activity, unprotected sex, and pregnancy [ 17 , 18 ]. Surprisingly, few studies have explored the influences of these factors on premarital sex and high-risk sex behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong.
Compared to the rich knowledge base in Western countries, little is known about the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among unmarried youth and the associated factors for high-risk sex behaviors in Hong Kong. If the household had youths in the required age group, the fieldworker would ask whether the youths were available or not. If the household had youths but were not present then they re-visited. Participants were identified and invited to participate in the survey by the experienced fieldworkers.
The questionnaire was then revised before fieldwork adoption. If there were eligible respondents, face-to-face interviews were conducted unless the respondents requested to do the questionnaires by themselves.
The questionnaires were anonymous and confidentiality was emphasized. The fieldwork was completed in December Sex-related knowledge and high-risk sexual behaviors were also assessed. This study included 12 items pertaining to sex-related knowledge e. Contraceptive use included how consistently sexually active youth practiced contraception and what methods they used.
Methods of contraception included male and female condom, contraceptive pills, injection, rhythm, and coitus interruption. Perceived adequacy of contraceptive knowledge and reasons for not using contraception was also assessed. The analysis was conducted in two parts using SPSS First, descriptive statistics were conducted to provide profiles of the participants, sex-related knowledge, attitudes toward premarital sex, pregnancy, compensated sex, multiple sex partners, contraceptive use, and high-risk sexual behaviors.
Next, gender differences of these variables were tested using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Second, four multivariate logistic regressions were performed on the sample to identify factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviors, including premarital sex, casual sex relationships, multiple sexual partners, and pregnancy.
These high-risk sexual behaviors served as the dependent variable s and the model included demographic variables e. Sex-related knowledge and attitudes toward high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. The majority of the young adults In addition, over half of the young adults Less than half of the young adults Specifically, only Self-reported high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. Contraceptive methods used among sexually active unmarried youth.
Regarding the practice of contraceptive use, less than half of sexually active youth in the past six months reported they used a contraceptive method every time, Male and females did not show any differences in the frequency of contraceptive use in the past six months. Other methods were used less often, such as contraceptive pills 4.
The primary reason reported by youth as to why they did not use contraception was that they had not thought the relationship would become sexual Associations between various characteristics and premarital sex and high-risk sexual behaviors. Note: Attitudes towards high-risk sexual behavior in the regression model corresponded with a particular sexual behavior. For example, attitudes toward premarital sex were used to predict premarital sex, and attitudes toward compensated dating with sex were used to predict casual sex relationships.
Although the majority of youth perceived that they had adequate contraceptive knowledge, less than half had consistently used any contraceptive methods during sexual intercourse.
Half of the sexually active youth who did not use contraceptive methods indicated that sexual intercourse happened unexpectedly, so they had no time to plan the contraception issues. Although the Hong Kong Government has published guidelines on sex education, sexual matters continue to be taboo topics in formal settings, thus knowledge on contraception has not been provided through official channels [ 23 ].
The fact that over twelve percent of our unmarried youth who did not use contraception reported they engaged in sexual intercourse only within the rhythm and over twelve percent of them were not afraid of getting pregnant demonstrated that contraception should be appropriately addressed in the development of sex education and HIV prevention programs.
In sum, it is important to focus contraception efforts on unmarried youth. Over half of Hong Kong unmarried youth showed liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and any kinds of sexual behavior that are mutually agreed upon, which is lower than their counterparts in the United States [ 24 ], but higher than those reported by Hong Kong university students [ 13 ]. In contrast, one study on young people in the United States, It seems that despite the long history of Western influence, Hong Kong youth still maintain some conservative attitudes toward sex.
The prevalence of premarital sex among Hong Kong unmarried youth was This figure has increased significantly compared to the same age group fifteen years ago [ 3 ]. These findings indicate that although liberal attitudes toward premarital sex seem quite natural since Hong Kong has been undergoing rapid westernization, when compared to other Asian societies the Hong Kong Chinese culture values conformity and has a low tolerance for rule violation among young adults [ 14 ].
Finally, consistent with previous studies [ 17 , 21 ], this study showed that older age, being male, coming from a divorced family, and being out of school were all associated with having experienced sexual intercourse. Being better educated is a protective factor for high-risk sex behavior as well as premarital sex, suggesting that the school environment might provide a context where early sexual activities are discouraged [ 27 ].
Similar to previous studies, liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and high-risk sex behaviors are prominent factors associated with corresponding sex behavior [ 21 , 28 ].
There are two unexpected findings that are discussed in turn. One plausible explanation is that immigrant youth may be conservative for premarital sex, and liberal attitudes for casual sex and multiple sex partners, which should be explored in future studies.
Second, family life satisfaction showed no association with any high-risk sex behaviors, which is inconsistent with the previous findings [ 29 ]. However, one study on college students in India showed that family environment had no significant influence on their sexual experience [ 30 ]. Meanwhile, it should be noted that only one global measurement item might fail to capture the full dimensionality of family life, so multiple items could be used in future studies. There are several limitations that should be highlighted.
First, it was a cross-sectional survey, thus time sequence and cause-effect relationships among these variables could not be established. Second, although anonymity and confidentiality were emphasized during data collection, premarital sex and high-risk sex behavior are socially unacceptable in Hong Kong, so the prospect of underreporting should be acknowledged.
Our findings have implications for future sex education, policymaking, and HIV prevention programs. First, unmarried youth should be targeted with an emphasis placed on contraception and HIV knowledge, since youth are not adequately versed in these domains of sex knowledge.
Written informed consent was obtained from the participant for the publication of this report and any accompanying images. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.
Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. Open Access. First Online: 29 July Part of the following topical collections: Environmental health. Background Little is known about sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong.
Methods Based on the Youth Sexuality Survey conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association FPAHK in , this study explored the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among 1, unmarried youth aged 18 to 27 years. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Measures This study included 12 items pertaining to sex-related knowledge e. Only about About Table 1 Characteristics of respondents. Male youth reported higher sex-related knowledge, but the gender difference was not statistically significant.
Table 2 Sex-related knowledge and attitudes toward high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. Males reported a higher prevalence of sexual intercourse than females With regard to multiple sexual partners, 6.
Only 2. Also, 0.
Review of General Psychology. Table 3. All I knew was that I burned and I burned frequently. If neither persons are married, it cannot be adultery. High self-esteem, which makes the core of personality health, is regarded as an important protective factor against risk-taking behaviors. The fathers owned the women daughters, wives, concubines, handmaidens, servants etc. But, I am not shocked by the numbers.
Wy have premarital sex. Reader Interactions
The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices.
A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among female university students in a public university in Malaysia. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness.
Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban—rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues. Sexual reproductive health SRH is an increasingly important component of global health [ 1 ].
Focusing on young women SRH continues to pose tremendous challenge for policy makers and health care providers. Many young women often lack basic information, knowledge and access to reproductive health services [ 2 ].
Parents or guardians are the first and primary sexual health educators of children. Often, because of cultural hurdles, many do not feel comfortable in discussing sex-related issues with their parents [ 3 , 4 ].
Likewise, health care providers and teachers are also reluctant to provide sex-related information to young unmarried people. The reasons for the reluctance were discomfort discussing the issues or erroneous beliefs that providing the information would encourage sexual activity [ 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 ].
The reasons why young people engage in sexual activities are complex and diverse and have been attributed to various social contexts and familial factors [ 7 ]. Unsafe sex practices among young women and their partners may also stem from lack of knowledge and access to health services for SRH [ 2 , 8 , 9 ]. Under the influence of mass media, socioeconomic development and modernisation, sexual attitudes and norms have been changing among adolescents and young people in developing [ 12 , 13 ] and Muslim countries [ 14 ].
A cross-sectional study in showed that 5. Another nationwide survey conducted in found that around 1. Emerging evidence indicates that increasing premarital sexual intercourse resulted in unintended pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women in Malaysia. This is evident in the increased number of abandoned baby cases over the years.
According to police reports, there were 65 cases of neglected babies in Between and , babies were abandoned across the country, of which were dead and were still alive. Premarital sexual relationships are forbidden in Islam and the person who commits the offence of zina sexual intercourse without being validly married to each other may be punished.
Given the familial and social stigma attached to premarital sex and its consequence, and fear of punishment for the offense of zina , many resort to abandoning or even killing their newborns. Although sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among young women have been extensively researched and the literature concerning these issues is abundant, studies related to our unique multicultural and multi-ethnic society, which encompass the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups, have been few.
Understanding of premarital sexual attitudes and behaviours in Eastern, and particularly in Islamic societies, is less detailed. Further, due to the complexity and multifaceted nature of SRH issues, attitudes and perceptions that vary across a broad array of individuals, communities and regions, previous findings may not be applicable to a multi-cultural Asian population and thus studies are warranted.
Malaysia is a multiracial country where Islam is the predominant religion. It is, in many respects, a socially conservative country with regard to reproduction and sexuality. Today, in the era of modernisation, although moderate Muslims form a majority, many still uphold conservative traditional ideas, which consider sex-related issues to be taboo.
This may in turn frame their behaviours and attitudes towards sexual and reproductive issues. Because of the sensitivity and controversial issues towards the subject, in the past, there was no formal sex education in schools in Malaysia. Only lessons about the human reproductive system were taught in science classes at secondary school level, with little education on sex and safe sex practices. Introducing sex education in public schools in Malaysia caused considerable debate among some conservative groups in the past years.
A Social and Reproductive Health Education module, which has a curriculum including biological, socio-cultural, psychological and spiritual aspects of healthy behaviour, was introduced into schools in Malaysia in Among other subjects, the curriculum covers reproductive systems, conflict management, puberty, the risks of pre-marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and sexual identity.
The findings, it is hoped, will provide evidence to help develop programmes and policies for improvement of the sexual and reproductive health of youth.
A cross-sectional survey using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Due to the sensitivity of research queries, the respondents were recruited using purposive sampling. All of the respondents in the study were women from a public university in Klang Valley, Malaysia, who were not taught the Social and Reproductive Health Education module during their secondary school days.
The sample was recruited from women attending common areas of the campus during academic semesters between June and October The questions in this study represent and build upon existing literature by exploring respondents' knowledge and attitudes about sexual and reproductive health, dating, contraceptive practices and the subjective norms of engaging in risky sexual behaviour Appendix 1.
The first part measured personal and family background variables. For the knowledge section, a correct response was given a score of one, and an incorrect or 'don't know' was scored zero; possible total scores ranged from 0 to 10, 0 to 16, 0 to 16, 0 to 13, respectively for reproduction and pregnancy, contraceptive types, contraceptive uses and contraceptive availability knowledge.
The third part consisted of three sub-sections measuring attitudes. The negative statements supporting premarital sex were reverse scored, so that higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The total possible scores ranged from 10 to The fourth part assessed sources of information and information seeking about sexually-related matters, safe sex practices, contraceptives and pregnancy.
The fifth and last section questioned respondents about their first sexual intercourse, enquiring about age of first experience of premarital sex, reasons respondents engaged in first sexual intercourse, the use of contraceptives during the first and later instances of sexual intercourse. The questionnaires were in two languages: Bahasa Malaysia the national language of Malaysia and English.
The survey questionnaire was tested for face and content validation, and pilot tested. The normality of the distribution was assessed by using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test for all the scores.
The test indicated that all the scores did not fit a normal distribution. Therefore, non parametric tests were used for the statistical analyses. The Kruskal-Wallis test, a nonparametric test equivalent to the one-way ANOVA, was used for comparisons between the medians of the scores. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency of knowledge and attitudes scores, with values of at least 0. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to examinethe relationship between knowledge and attitudes scores.
All effects were reported as correlation coefficients r. A correlation coefficient r of 0. For analysis by binary multivariate logistic regression, all the scores were divided into binary variable, dichotomised on the median of each score. Due care was taken to ensure that all those who agreed to participate in the study did so voluntarily. Written informed consent was obtained from the respondents prior to data collection. The background characteristics of the students who surveyed response rate The age range was between 17 and 26 years.
The internal consistency reliability was good as the Cronbach's alpha of all knowledge and attitude domains were above 0. The Cronbach's alpha for the reproduction and pregnancy knowledge scale was 0. From a possible range of 0—10 of the total 10 items of questions on knowledge about reproduction and pregnancy, the mean total score was 4.
Reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score increased gradually from undergraduate year 1 to year 3 students. However, the pre-university students scored higher than all the undergraduate year 1 to 3 students. The knowledge varied greatly by ethnicity; scores were higher in the Chinese, followed by Malays, natives of Sabah or Sarawak and Indians. There were also significant differences across socioeconomic groups; with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge declining with lower average household income, low parental and maternal occupational grouping and less urbanised locality grouping.
The strength of religious faith and parental discipline strictness were inversely associated with the reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score. The Cronbach's alpha for the contraceptive awareness scale was 0.
Of the total of 16 methods of contraceptive listed, the majority had heard of at least nine methods. Among the undergraduate year 1 to 3 groups, there was a gradual increase of levels of contraceptive methods awareness scores over year 1 to year 3 students. The contraceptive methods awareness scores again vary greatly by ethnicity, being highest among the Chinese.
There were also significant differences across socioeconomic groups; awareness scores declined with lower average household income, low parental and maternal occupational grouping, and less urbanised locality grouping. The strength of religious faith and parental discipline were inversely associated with the reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score. Respondents who are currently dating had significantly lower scores of awareness of contraceptive methods than those who previously dated and never dated.
Contraceptive use knowledge score was lowest in the undergraduate year 1 group and gradually increased for each academic year groups. The pre university group presented the highest score.
Chinese respondents had significantly higher contraceptive use knowledge score than that of other ethnic groups. Respondents whose parents were employed in professional or managerial occupations, with higher average household monthly income, and lived in urban localities had significantly higher scores.
The strength of religious faith and parental discipline were inversely associated with the contraceptive use knowledge score. The majority knew the availability or accessibility of only three contraceptive methods condoms Likewise, availability scores were highest among the pre university students, Chinese ethnic group, parents employed in professional or managerial occupations, higher average household monthly income and from urban localities.
There were significant large-effect size correlations r above 0. The Cronbach's alpha for the attitudes towards premarital sex scale was 0.
With higher scores corresponding to opposing premarital sex, the median score of 37 on the possible scoring range 10 to 40 indicated majorities did not have liberal attitudes in relation to premarital sex.
The premarital sex attitude scores were not significantly different across the socio-economic spectrum average household income, paternal and maternal occupational grouping. The scores were significantly higher in rural than in urban localities. The attitudes score increased along with increasing degree of religious faith and parental discipline. Currently dating individuals have significantly lower attitudes towards premarital sex scores than individuals who have never dated.
Those who had had sex scored significantly lower than who had never had sex. The correlation coefficient of less than 0. Only 2. Forty-two 2.